Yes. But before that, make sure that your bios didn't reset itself and unselect your HDD as a boot device.
Plug your hard drive back in, turn on the PC, and when it says "Press f10 for setup", press F10. Go to the bios tab that lists your boot devices (use left and right arrow keys to scroll tabs to the one that contains boot device selection). Make sure your hard drive is listed (usually, your DVD drive would be the first device and the hard drive, the second).
The other thing you can check while you are in the bios is whether your chipset is set up correctly for your hard drive. For example, if your drive is SATA (which it most likely is), make sure the chipset setting is selected that supports SATA (rather than IDE or PATA only).
After this, proceed to attempt boot Windows with a boot/recovery disk. If you make it in to windows and everything is fine, then as said, your installation of Windows is corrupted (which may be reversible if you can restore or repair your installation). At worst, you are probably only out the Hard Drive (and files on it), which is not that expensive to replace.