You're absolutely correct about the integrated graphics front. If your Dad does any 3D
gaming you might consider a Llano. Otherwise look at Intel Sandybridge processors. A cheap sandybridge processor offers much better processing performance than a high end Llano (Llano is an Athlon II CPU) while still maintaining resonable integrated graphics performance (Llano graphics is far superior, but this is only realized in 3D gaming situations). Llano really only applies to the light gamer. Furthermore, Llano and the FM1 socket will be discontinued in 2-3 months when Trinity and FM2 come out. (and they will NOT be backward compatable)
I made a cheap system for my grandmother a month ago with an Intel G620 processor. ($70) http://www.newegg.com/Product/Product.aspx?Item=N82E16819116399
I like ASRock for the quality they offer at an unbeatable value. This board has USB3.0, UEFI, SATA III for SSD's all for $75. http://www.newegg.com/Product/Product.aspx?Item=N82E16813157236
This was the cheapest 23" monitor I could find at the time it was on sale for $120. The LED looks nice and its bright, no dead pixels, I was satisfied, even if I didn't get to keep it. http://www.newegg.com/Product/Product.aspx?Item=N82E16824262012
I used the Fractal Design Core 1000 case and really liked it. 120mm front fan, black painted interior, hard drive dampeners, front dust filter, all for $50. I added a rear 92mm fan but in hindsight it probably wasnt needed for this system. http://www.newegg.com/Product/Product.aspx?Item=N82E16811352009
And an Antec Earthwatts 380W power supply for $50 http://www.newegg.com/Product/Product.aspx?Item=N82E16817371033
Slap a $20 4GB kit of ram, a $20 optical drive, and reuse a hard drive (prices are at least double what they normally are due to flooding in Taiwan still) and you're looking at $405 without even checking on newegg for combo deals.
I would consider an SSD a luxury item for a build like this. If you insist, I would recommend something in the 90-128GB size range. 90GB should be enough, if not you can always install programs on the hdd. I have a 120GB SSD and still have 60GB left. I have all my programs and games on it and all my documents, music and such oh my hdd.
I recently purchased a Vertex 3 90GB for $105 after MIR for a friend. OCZ Vertex 3, Mushkin Chronos, Crucial m4, Samsung 830 are my recommended SSD drives. Pick up any one of them when they're on sale for less than $1.25/GB and you've got yourself a really good deal.
i5-3570K, ASRock Z77 Pro4-m, Asus GTX660 TOP, 120 GB Vertex 3 Max IOPS, 2 TB Samsung EcoGreen F4, 8GB G-Skill @1.25V, Silverstone PS07B