I've seen this happen mainly in two situations. One is a failing hard drive; one is a bad memory module.
I'd boot off your Windows install media, use the repair mode and go to the command console. Run a CHKDSK /B on the hard drive (this may take awhile) to ensure the drive is good. If the drive checks out, then I'd boot off a thumbdrive with Memtest86+ and run it through several passes to make sure the RAM is okay.
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