SATA uses differential signalling to offset outside interference. The cables are very simple with two shielded, differential pairs; One to transmit and one to receive.
All the other wires are just ground connections. Shielding between the TX and RX pairs is part of the spec, but common sense says that thanks to differential shielding this is largely unnecessary given the voltages, physical tolerances and layout of a SATA cable.
The SATA spec currently lists no difference in cable between SATA1 and SATA3. In theory, even a very cheap 1 meter (max length) cable ought to be capable of connecting two supporting devices at the full 6.0Gb/s SATA3 speed.
Some people ask me why I have always enclosed my signature in spoiler tags; There is a good reason for that, but I can't elaborate without giving away the plot twist.