Yeah, you definitely don't want to bleach the filter media. In my post above, I indicated that all of the filter media should be *changed* after thoroughly cleaning the housing.
As long as you rinse well, any remaining traces of bleach in the housing should be so minute that it won't hurt you. Any chlorine that doesn't get stripped out by the final filter stage (which I assume is some sort of activated carbon media - very good at removing chlorine) will be far below the amount you would ingest just from swimming a couple of laps around a swimming pool. Many municipal water systems also add trace amounts of chlorine to the water supply as a disinfectant; if you've ever consumed tap water in a big city you've probably consumed what amounts to really dilute bleach.
I can't say the same for pond algaicide. I have no idea what's in that stuff, or whether it is safe for human ingestion even in trace amounts. If it is some form of a chemical herbicide (as seems likely), I'll take the bleach!
Edit: And just so you don't need to take my word for it, the CDC actually recommends 1/8 teaspoon of chlorine bleach per gallon as an emergency measure for disinfecting drinking water: https://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinki ... ction.html
. Any residual chlorine after thorough rinsing of the filter housing will be many orders of magnitude below this (probably in the PPM range, if not lower).
Edit 2: I'm also going to reduce the recommended bleach soak time from my original post. Go for an hour instead of overnight. This isn't about safety, it is an aesthetic issue. With an extended soak, the plastic may absorb trace amounts of bleach, causing a faint bleach odor in the water for several days; you probably want to avoid this.