There is no California law requiring a gun safe to buy a rifle.
If you don't own an approved safe you will have to buy a cable lock.
I didn't know those would fulfill that requirement. Ignore question two then.
As for what rifle to buy, that is a personal preference thing and depending on what type of shooting you like and your budget some rifles will be more appropriate than others.
One thing I wouldn't do is buy a rifle that shoots an uncommon round. A K31 is 7.5 Swiss or something, not something you will find at Walmart.
I haven't really thought about bullet availability. I'll be sure to consider when looking at guns now.
If you can't learn to shoot and what you like before you buy, a Ruger 10-22 is a gun almost everyone has, it is cheap to buy and cheap to shoot. I went with a slightly less popular choice with a Marlin 60 I got for $50 at an estate auction.
A decent inexpensive .22 also isn't a bad choice since .22 is actually back on shelves in most places or online; a 10/22, Marlin 60, Savage 64FP, hell there's lots of choices.
I'll look into locally available .22 rifles.
Some cheap surplus rifles like Mosin Nagants can be OK or very bad. Some have ruined barrels that pattern like a shotgun, some have sticky bolts that require a hammer to reload.
At this point, for a first rifle, I'd steer clear of milsurps in general unless you're simply interested in milsurps for the sake of them being military surplus (which is fine of course).
I'll put military surplus on my avoid list for now.
If anything caches your eye, write the name and serial number down then go home and research the rifle before you buy. Local gun shops are almost universally known for selling some overpriced garbage guns so that research might save you money or headaches.
I'll be sure to do that.
One more thing, your father might be a great teacher but you should look up the rules of gun safety and learn them well. If you are going to a gun range to shoot, look up their rules and learn them too. Do that and you won't be "that guy" at the range. You will probably be able to spend more time shooting too.
Okay. I'll be sure to do that as well.
I have a lot more research to do after this. Thanks for the advice guys.