As another commenter said, you should definitely still be getting the POST screen, and you should be able to go into the BIOS setup and such. If you're not even getting that, then the drive is probably dead, or else there's something wrong with your motherboard.
Whenever you are installing or configuring a new hard drive, I would always suggest using an external USB-SATA enclosure, such as: https://www.amazon.com/Sabrent-Tool-fre ... l+usb+sata
It makes it easy to configure and format the drive without having to keep cracking your computer open and messing with the internals. Get a computer with a working Windows or Linux installation, plug in the new drive with the USB enclosure, and make sure it is detected and that the full capacity is available, without having to physically crack any computers open.
You could also use the GParted version of Linux, running from USB. Install an ISO of GParted to a USB flash drive and boot from that. Then, check the SATA drive from within GParted. You'll need to download an ISO of GParted, as well as an ISO burner to burn the ISO to a flash drive.
It's not essential to do all this business with an external USB-SATA enclosure, but I personally find that it makes life easier.
And if you have two USB enclosures, then you can put the old, almost dead drive in one and the brand new drive in the other, and use Acronis True Image or Macrium Reflect Free to clone one drive to the other drive. That way, the brand new drive will have an exact clone of the old drive. Now that the new drive is ready and working, you can remove it from the USB enclosure and install it in the conventional, internal SATA port.
Again, you can do this without any USB enclosures. But I always find it is easier to do hard drive clones using USB, because that way, you can plug-and-play and troubleshoot more easily.