Also found this: https://github.com/FreedomBen/rtl8188ce-linux-driver
Can't vouch for its quality or stability as I've never used it, but it looks like someone has taken it upon themselves to create an (allegedly) improved version of the driver for this chip. It appears to be actively maintained.
As far as the guides on the Ubuntu forum go, I'd take anything that is older than 2-3 years with a grain of salt, as a lot can change in terms of driver/kernel support in that amount of time. If there's a recent guide, that would be worth a try before going down the rabbit hole with the above linked github project.
Edit: Hmm... just noticed that one of the bug reports filed against that github driver is that on 16.04 the system continues to use the stock driver even after installing the replacement one. Might need to blacklist the stock driver to force it to pick up the new one if that's the case.
Edit 2: Realtek has been notorious for Linux driver issues. Prior to 2012 or so some of their Gb wired stuff and audio codecs had random issues on Linux. The wireless stuff can still be somewhat hit-or-miss depending on model (as you've discovered).