Now I'm not quite sure the meaning on a Circular vs a Linear, but it sounds like the circular is adjustable and a linear in a stationary filter much like a typical UV filter, or am I completely off base?
You're completely off base
All polarizers have a rotating part and a fixed part, and both linear and circular will attenuate reflections in certain orientations as you describe; the difference between them is whether they fool the systems in the camera, not anything you can see with your eye.
I love polarizers in certain situations because they can do fairly dramatic things that are difficult or impossible to achieve in post-processing, but those are only very specific circumstances and unless you go looking for them a polarizer doesn't do much for you except making things a little darker or taking up space in your camera bag. My two favorite experiences with polarizers:
- shooting Greek and Roman ruins in the eastern Mediterranean: when I found the right relationship between myself, the sun, and the subject I could get brilliant white limestone in front of amazing blue-black skies (you can get this kind of drama with cumulus cloudscapes also)
- shooting tidepools on the northern BC coast: turning the polarizer would make the surface of the pool go from an opaque sheet of glare to transparent, almost like having X-Ray vision, and the purple and amber starfish would suddenly pop out against the kelpy backdrop
Be especially careful with cleaning polarizers, and check for scratches if you're buying used.