OS X El Capitan puts the pedal to the Metal

At its WWDC keynote today, Apple introduced the next version of OS X, bringing another slice of California to Mac users everywhere. It's called El Capitan, and though it doesn't bring any earth-shattering changes to the user interface, there is one major new feature that Mac gamers and professional users may appreciate: the Metal low-overhead graphics API from iOS is now available on Macs.

With Metal, apps and games on the Mac could enjoy the same kinds of performance improvements we're expecting from software optimized for DirectX 12 and Vulkan on the PC. Developers from Epic took the stage to demonstrate Metal with a live demo of the Unreal Engine running one of the studio's latest games, Fortnite. Epic claimed a 70% reduction in CPU overhead with Metal versus traditional OpenGL rendering on the Mac.

OS X's Mission Control window management system is more powerful in El Capitan. Full-screen apps can now share the screen with a split view similar to that in Windows 8, and new full-screen or split view Spaces can now be created right from the Mission Control view.

Other minor improvements abound. Apple has improved the Spotlight search function, which can now accept natural-language queries system-wide. Tabs in Safari can be pinned to the tab bar, and they'll persist and refresh automatically every time the browser is opened. Safari will also identify tabs playing audio and let users mute them with a couple of clicks. One final improvement is a cursor-finding gesture that will helpfully enlarge the system's mouse pointer if you wiggle it upon waking up the system.

OS X El Capitan will be available to developers today, with a public beta set to begin in July and a general release to follow in the fall. Like other recent OS X releases, it'll be a free upgrade.

Comments closed
    • LoneWolf15
    • 4 years ago

    Fun Fact: “El Capitan” was the code name for the case of the first blue-and-white G3 Mac tower.

    [url<]http://ismh.s3.amazonaws.com/blue-and-white-open.jpg[/url<]

    • BobbinThreadbare
    • 4 years ago

    Why are they bothering with their own API instead of just using Vulkan?

      • Concupiscence
      • 4 years ago

      Vulkan isn’t ready for prime time, Metal’s something they control, and it’s a nice bridge for app development between OS X and iOS. Imagine it as their own version of Direct3D, or QuickDraw 3D reborn.*

      * That’s a joke for old people like me…

        • derFunkenstein
        • 4 years ago

        Not to mention Metal already exists in a usable form thanks to being on iOS for a year already.

    • TheMonkeyKing
    • 4 years ago

    So my question is why we didn’t program “close to the metal” in the beginning? Were we not that sophisticated? Was API development too basic back then?

      • chuckula
      • 4 years ago

      Everything was programmed bare metal in the beginning.

      Then programmers realized that they had to make massive code changes for every single platform that they wanted to target.

      Then the graphics API was born to fix that problem.

      Then the graphics API got too bloated and didn’t really conform to major changes that took place in the underlying hardware.

      Then we got “low level” to be “close to the metal” again…. and if you think that this might turn into a cycle, just wait a little while, because it will.

        • blastdoor
        • 4 years ago

        But is it a cycle (which implies circularity without any real progress), or is it more like a converging search algorithm? I’ll be optimistic today and say it’s the latter.

        That is — Overshoot, correct (but overshoot in the other direction), correct (overshoot in the other direction, but not as much), correct (overshoot in other direction, but not as much)…. repeat…. until finally we arrive at the optimal solution.

          • cynan
          • 4 years ago

          I think there are way too many real world/market variables to make it such a simple dichotomy.

          For example, in a healthy graphics market, say with 3 or 4 (or heck, even 2) strong competitors, equally matched in market share, It is in the interest of both the GPU developers (to remain competitive) and game developers to have a strong evolving set of APIs. The more efficient and functional, the better.

          However, when a single company (perhaps looking more and more like Nvidia on the desktop and obviously PowerVr for iOS) doing away with APIs (or proprietary ones meant for a single hardware spec) just makes more sense.

          The fact that these trends in the market aren’t static means that we don’t just get the more efficient converging algorithm, either for more general APIs or coding to metal, for any indefinite period. Which makes it a mish mash of both circuity and convergence on progress.

            • blastdoor
            • 4 years ago

            Sounds about right — the market is trying to move towards equilibrium, but “equilibrium” is a moving target, because the world keeps changing.

            • BobbinThreadbare
            • 4 years ago

            What I expect to happen is that OpenGL/Direct3D keep the close to the metal stuff, and people who don’t want that go with another companies API which is more abstract. Think using SDL. Or you just license an off the shelf engine and don’t worry too much about it at all.

        • wimpishsundew
        • 4 years ago

        To be fair, high level API was created because there were so many different GPUs at the time that developers had to code for. Today, there’s really only AMD and NVDA for discrete and AMD/Intel for integrated.

        It’s a different situation in which low level API would be more beneficial than time consuming. Then you have to take into account that GPU feature sets are very similar as well.

        Would it be cycle back to high level? maybe. If there are more competition in the GPU market as it transform in the future, then it can absolutely happen again.

        • BobbinThreadbare
        • 4 years ago

        Don’t the upcoming APIs offer different levels of closeness and the programmer can choose how much time to spend optimizing?

    • tipoo
    • 4 years ago

    Most of the performance advantages seem directly tied to Metal, so I wonder how much better it is for macs that don’t support it (seems to require Intel HD4000+, Radeon HD 7000+, GT 400+). Same with iOS, the A5 chip already doesn’t support Metal, and that was what needed the speedup the most, it’s still chunky on iOS8. So I wonder how much iOS9 will improve it.

    I just hope they eventually support Vulkan. Metal is cool, but Vulkan would allow easier cross porting.

    • IronHalik
    • 4 years ago

    I’m wondering if Metal will be implemented on the SDK level as default rendering API. The slides kinda suggested that SDK elements like Cocoa would be calling Metal by default.

      • Ryszard
      • 4 years ago

      I think you’re right. There was a point in the Platform State of the Union session after the keynote where they covered that they’d be moving the core OS drawing stuff to Metal.

      • tipoo
      • 4 years ago

      Yes it will, they said that in the conference. Built in apps will be moved to metal, as will OS-wide animation rendering. Though I guess for older devices that don’t support Metal, they still have to use the old method as well.

    • anotherengineer
    • 4 years ago

    Pedal to the Metal

    [url<]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=STy1UL49FZM[/url<] ??

    • DancinJack
    • 4 years ago

    yay

    Deanjo, can you download and host for me? thanks 🙂

      • Deanjo
      • 4 years ago

      Lol, patience. It will be available in less than a month to the general public. Doing that would violate my developer agreement.

      PS Runs pretty smooth on even the old Core 2 Duo iMac (Late 2009) that I received and fixed this morning.

        • DancinJack
        • 4 years ago

        hahah no worries. i can download it.

        I think i will hold off. the only Mac in my possession right now is a production machine and i don’t want to take the chance.

    • End User
    • 4 years ago

    I noticed a substantial improvement in Mission Control performance on a 2010 MacBook Air running the 10.11 dev build.

      • adisor19
      • 4 years ago

      I’ll wait for the public beta before diving in but I’m hoping for some improvement cause with a Thunderbolt display + a 4K display, the Mission Control animation does not exist.

      Adi

        • End User
        • 4 years ago

        That is a ton of pixels. GPU?

        I just installed it on my rMB. TotalFinder died but everything else seems to be working well. Non Apple apps don’t have the split screen functionality.

          • adisor19
          • 4 years ago

          Latest rMBP 13 i7 3.1Ghz with 16GB RAM. With 2 Thunderbolt display, it works ok but if I swap one of them with the 4K with scaling on, Mission Control is a choppy mess.

          I’ve put the 4K on the side for now and I’ll revisit this once the public beta comes out. You got my hopes up with that comment.

          Adi

    • Alexko
    • 4 years ago

    I’ve just now realized that Mac OS versions are not named after cats anymore. I might not have been paying very close attention.

      • BIF
      • 4 years ago

      They ran out of cats to kill. I mean name their versions after.

    • Ragnar Dan
    • 4 years ago

    [quote<]It's called El Capitan, and though it doesn't bring any earth-shattering changes to the user interface, there is one major new feature that Mac gamers and professional users may appreciate: the Metal low-overhead graphics API from iOS is now available on Macs.[/quote<] Let's just hope it doesn't bring the fun of waiting for the OS to get the application centered on the display or waiting for it to get over the... pauses... that show up fairly often.

      • derFunkenstein
      • 4 years ago

      In the 5 minutes they blurbed about the OS, that was one of the things that’s a focus, supposably.

        • Ragnar Dan
        • 4 years ago

        Well, others tell me their newer CPUs don’t have the problem mine has, so I can only wait and hope they don’t do anything to harm the performance of the MBP that I run every now and then after having promised improvements.

    • sweatshopking
    • 4 years ago

    the only thing that was interesting from this Windows 8 windows/phone 8.1 announcement was the 14.99 pricing of music.

    seriously just copies otherwise. not anything actually new.

      • derFunkenstein
      • 4 years ago

      Apple Music is a total copycat. They just invented Spotify and/or Last.fm, from what I can tell.

        • the
        • 4 years ago

        That follows Apple’s pattern though. iTunes started life as [url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SoundJam_MP<]SoundJam MP[/url<].

        • sweatshopking
        • 4 years ago

        It is, but the family pricing and international licensing are interesting.

    • Beelzebubba9
    • 4 years ago

    I’m pretty amused that Apple finally got around to copying aero snap (or whatever it’s called in Windows 8/8.1/10). I don’t use it on Windows but it’s nice to see Apple returning the favor and jacking features right out of Windows.

      • derFunkenstein
      • 4 years ago

      For people with big displays it’s one of the most useful things Windows has. Good to see everyone stealing it.

        • Beelzebubba9
        • 4 years ago

        Yeah I should have clarified I’m all for OS vendors stealing each other’s best ideas.

          • derFunkenstein
          • 4 years ago

          I agree. There really is a “best” way to do some things, and if everyone does it, guess who wins out? Us.

            • blastdoor
            • 4 years ago

            Big thumbs up.

            Here’s an additional thought….

            These days, operating systems, and actually perhaps the right thing to talk about is an entire platform/ecosystem, are big complicated things. Choosing all the pieces, and making them fit together in a coherent way, is actually a bigger deal than claiming “first!” on the development of any specific feature.

      • Deanjo
      • 4 years ago

      You mean the feature that Microsoft copied from Linux desktops?

        • Beelzebubba9
        • 4 years ago

        Sure, and Apple copied a lot of features I love – like Virtual Desktops – from *nix windows managers as well.

          • Deanjo
          • 4 years ago

          If you are going to point out the feature copying in the future, at least point to the original instead of someone else’s copy.

            • bjm
            • 4 years ago

            Please do.

            • Beelzebubba9
            • 4 years ago

            Yeah, sorry, I should have thought about you and the 17 other people who use a Linux desktop before posting that.

            .

            .

            I kid! I kind of figured I was enough of an OS X fanboy that that post wouldn’t be taken too seriously considering how many of the UI features Windows 10 poached from OS X/Linux.

          • BIF
          • 4 years ago

          And they all copied from Xerox, right?

        • bjm
        • 4 years ago

        By the time Microsoft implemented Aero Snap in released product, the Linux equivalent was nothing more than a poorly hacked-together and untested set of patches. To say that Microsoft copied Aero Snap from Linux is a vast overstatement–even many of today’s Linux implementation flat out call it Aero Snap.

          • Deanjo
          • 4 years ago

          Umm, nope, that feature was even there in the original Compiz + XGL. That was a good year before Windows even had a composited desktop in Vista (something OS X had since OS X 10.2). It was also displayed in Project Looking Glass.

            • bjm
            • 4 years ago

            No, it was hardly fully implemented in Compiz by that time. Here are the steps on how to enable it back in 2009:

            [url<]http://www.omgubuntu.co.uk/2009/11/aero-snap-ubuntu-linux[/url<] Even by then, they are calling it Aero Snap. Why? Because users in Linux forums everywhere in 2009 were asking how to copy the feature. If it was fully implemented, then it would have been a proper check box feature that you can easily enable--you know, like how it is now in current Linux implementations. Project Looking Glass had no comparable Aero Snap feature.

            • Deanjo
            • 4 years ago

            Dude, it was available waaaaay back in 2006 on SUSE 10.1 in KDE3 running Compiz and XGL. Pull your head out of the *buntu arse as they were well late in the game implementing compositing, and yes, Looking Glass did have the same functionality and it functioned over multiple desktops.

            • bjm
            • 4 years ago

            So then link to the documented feature back in 2006. Take your own advice: “If you are going to point out the feature copying in the future, at least point to the original instead of someone else’s copy.”

            Compiz + XGL does not equal Aero Snap.

            • Deanjo
            • 4 years ago

            [url<]https://old-en.opensuse.org/Xgl[/url<] [url<]http://ftp.hosteurope.de/mirror/ftp.opensuse.org/distribution/SL-10.1/non-oss-dvd-iso/[/url<] Knock yourself out. There was a plugin for Compiz XGL. As you can see the source is long gone after being forked to Beryl, then back to Compiz, and 20 million other forks due to developers acting like kids. [url<]http://gitweb.freedesktop.org/?p=xorg/xserver.git;a=tree;h=xgl-0-0-1;hb=xgl-0-0-1[/url<]

            • bjm
            • 4 years ago

            [quote<]There was a plugin for Compiz XGL.[/quote<] Where? Can you even show a reference of people even discussing the feature? Even KDE themselves say that the feature was introduced in 4.4. ...still waiting.

            • Hattig
            • 4 years ago

            The tiling window manager has existed in Linux for a long time. You could argue that they stole the idea from Windows 1 of course, but actually Windows 1 was restricted to that due to a patent on overlapping windows in a GUI that someone else (Apple?) held. So maybe Apple forced tiling as a concept originally 🙂

            Of course Snap is actaully a quick, easy window arrangement mechanism that allows you to tile fullscreen apps to sides of the screen (but not the join in multiple monitor setups), whilst remaining windows are overlapping. What Microsoft did was make it easy to use – drap and done.

            So yes, I think this is more a copy of Aero Snap than any Linux implementation. I haven’t seen the video yet, but does it have Corner Snap?

            • bjm
            • 4 years ago

            Exactly, I agree. If we are to include “similar” implementations with the same end-result, then you can even include right-clicking the taskbar and choosing to Tile Windows Vertically, which achieves the exact samething with two open windows. That feature was available as far back as Windows 95, I believe. Many Linux implementations also had Keyboard shortcuts to achieve similar types of snapping, long before Aero Snap.

            While the end-result is the same, the gesture is entirely different and that’s where the pudding is. As it stands, Microsoft was the first one to elegantly implement snapping windows with mouse gestures to the edges of the screen as seen in Aero Snap.

            • Deanjo
            • 4 years ago

            It was a new feature for 4.4 KDE’s kwin manager which is a separate project.

            • bjm
            • 4 years ago

            Yes, convenient that it took them until after Windows 7 to implement it rather than copy it from another Linux project, isn’t it? And you still have not shown a similar Aero Snap feature in Compiz+XGL before 2009. The omgubuntu article was obviously focused on Ubuntu, but the steps provided were for Compiz. If you want to implement Aero Snap functionality in OpenSUSE with Compiz at that time, you would have been following the same steps.

            And you throwing the XGL homepage that details the full project and throwing an .ISO download link proves nothing because nobody is arguing Linux had compositing before Windows. This is about Aero Snap mouse gestures. Nowhere in the XGL homepage did they mention anything about mouse gestures similar to Aero Snap.

            For someone giving advice, you are terrible at following your own. We’re a few posts into this thread now and you’ve proven nothing. LOL, just admit you’re wrong. Or… you can just -1 me again and then disappear like you normally do when you’re wrong.

        • Concupiscence
        • 4 years ago

        As best I recall OS X pulled off GPU compositing first, with Linux and Windows following suit. Linux had a working stack before Windows, but Microsoft decided to delay unveiling theirs until Vista. That was probably a smart move on their part, as it ensured a critical mass of capable hardware existed and allowed them to make a clean, feature set-driven break with the previous GDI+-centric rendering backend.

        That said, it was really spiffy to see OS X with graphical effects running on a Geforce 2 MX, and a Radeon 8500 competently pulling off a beautiful composited window manager with video playback and multiple virtual desktops on something like a 2 GHz Athlon XP.

          • Deanjo
          • 4 years ago

          Ya compositing has been around for a long time in OS X. They were doing it with Rage II graphics that had 16 MB of vram.

            • Concupiscence
            • 4 years ago

            I think the GeForce2 MX was the cutoff… They wanted to get it running on lower end gear, but restrictions on arbitrary texture sizing made it too hard on anything lower.

            • Deanjo
            • 4 years ago

            The Rage II was also able to pull off limited effects such as the rotating cube for user switching. You are right however the Geforce 2 MX was the first fully enabled.

            • Concupiscence
            • 4 years ago

            Ah, that’s right. Basically just treat screen output as a framebuffer object, render to texture, texture one facet of a cube, rotate, and there you are. Weren’t the Rage II and Rage Pro essentially similar, outside of the latter’s greater speed and a few twiddly features? Neither supported bilinear filtering on alpha-blended textures, though the Rage Pro could apply multitexturing at least some of the time.

        • derFunkenstein
        • 4 years ago

        You mean the feature that Linux DEs copied from having multiple actual desks in a room? They totally stole that idea from cube farms.

          • Concupiscence
          • 4 years ago

          You’ve touched on the core of the issue. I don’t really care [i<]where[/i<] a given idea comes from as long as it works well. "Windows is legally taking ideas from other window management schemes to improve its user experience!" Should I be upset by this information? Who really loses?

            • derFunkenstein
            • 4 years ago

            It’s kind of a revelation for me. Previously the thought was “well if you wanted XYZ in the first place, you should just buy platform ABC”, and now it’s me (and others, certainly, like you) wondering why shouldn’t everyone just have what legitimately works best?

      • End User
      • 4 years ago

      Windows snapping has been available on OS X for ages thanks to at least one third party developer. I’d die without windows snapping on OS X. Windows snap is the greatest thing Microsoft has ever created.

        • Deanjo
        • 4 years ago

        There was even a 3rd party snap plugin for OS 9 back in the day.

    • chuckula
    • 4 years ago

    [quote<]Epic claimed a 70% reduction in CPU overhead with Metal versus traditional OpenGL rendering on the Mac.[/quote<] Bear in mind that Apple has fallen WAY behind the curve in OpenGL support on Macs, so that 70% number (which we all know is being cherry picked) shouldn't be taken as a sign of the delta that they are getting compared to modern OpenGL.

      • derFunkenstein
      • 4 years ago

      Yeah, gaming on a Mac is pretty brutal. For example, Diablo 3 runs at around 50% higher FPS on Windows with a 2012 Mac Mini as compared to the Mac OS. That’s the difference between running it at 1024×600 vs running it at 1366×768 on HD4000.

        • Beelzebubba9
        • 4 years ago

        Apparently we have different standards regarding playable framerates on OS X. You seem to expect them to, you know, be playable whereas I’m just excited the games run at all on OS X. 🙂

          • derFunkenstein
          • 4 years ago

          Ha! Good point. I have a “Hackintosh” SSD but I boot to it less and less. The stuff I use that’s Mac-only has shrunken considerably over the last year. So now I’m using a lot of cross-platform software AND I get good performance.

            • Beelzebubba9
            • 4 years ago

            It’s funny, because I recently waged a small battle to get us all MacBooks at work due to the heaping pile of issues we had with our ThinkPads and Dell M3800s. A lot of serious long time Windows devs are just switching by choice more due to the hardware than OS X, but it’s interesting to witness.

            • derFunkenstein
            • 4 years ago

            Sure, their mobile hardware is great. As a 100% full time telecommuter, I have zero use for it. If the software is cross platform, I might as well use Windows.

            • Beelzebubba9
            • 4 years ago

            Yeah that only makes total sense. If PC laptops weren’t almost all hobbled in some way or another I’d probably not even own a Mac anymore….

        • the
        • 4 years ago

        OS X has a far more complex window manager that runs in full accelerated mode for everything now. Essentially OS X will continue to use the GPU to update windows in the background even if you’re running a game, at least until the game explicitly needs that video memory for the game. I did a bit of experimentation when looking into the GTX 970’s 3.5/4.0 GB issue [url=https://techreport.com/forums/viewtopic.php?f=3&t=101965&start=30#p1233969<]here[/url<].

          • derFunkenstein
          • 4 years ago

          So nothing can have exclusive access? Kinda lame.

        • BobbinThreadbare
        • 4 years ago

        Curious to see how this compares with Linux.

      • xeridea
      • 4 years ago

      Also, the CPU overhead reduction in DX12/Vulkan is greater than 70%, so it would make more sense to just program for Vulkan to make it cross platform, since no one makes OSX exclusive games anyway.

      • Flapdrol
      • 4 years ago

      Also, who cares about cpu overhead on a mac, the problem for gaming is the weaksauce gpu’s.

        • derFunkenstein
        • 4 years ago

        The bigger problem is that even on machines with decent GPUs (like the 5K iMac) the performance compared to Windows is way behind. That’s something they should fix in software.

          • End User
          • 4 years ago

          Fortunately Apple has put the pedal to the metal to solve the problem.

            • derFunkenstein
            • 4 years ago

            But will developers do so in a timely manner? I hope so, because that’s what is better for, err, end users.

            • End User
            • 4 years ago

            It was announced that Adobe was onboard with Metal. I think the performance improvments alone are going to drive adoption.

            • derFunkenstein
            • 4 years ago

            I’m not so concerned about future product usage. It’s the current stuff that I’m concerned with. That you’re not going to have to pay a lot more to get up to par with Windows.

          • the
          • 4 years ago

          Even ultra highend GPUs will choke at those resolutions. The Titan X barely handles 4K by itself in modern titles. 5K would make any GPU cry in pain.

          The only saving grace for Apple for products like the iMac would be to incorporate variable refresh (they have their own custom scaler for the 5K iMac) but Apple doesn’t seem eager to put their support behind one standard.

            • derFunkenstein
            • 4 years ago

            I’m talking about sane resolutions. 1080p, 1440p. My GTX970 running nvidia’s drivers. Not nearly what windows does.

            • Terra_Nocuus
            • 4 years ago

            But again, that 5K iMac is a “Retina” display, which means it’s really only rendering 1440p.

            • derFunkenstein
            • 4 years ago

            I don’t think you understand how it works. It renders at 5k with everything at 2×2. That’s not a1440p image, is 2880p with everything bigger. Still a5k image.

            • Terra_Nocuus
            • 4 years ago

            I could be wrong — it’s happened once before… once — but I understood a Retina display to be 4 physical pixels per pixel to display: i.e., your 5K display is a 2×2 1440p usable resolution, your Macbook Pro (2880 x 1800) is a 2×2 1440 x 900 usable resolution, etc. That’s what makes the display so crisp & clear; moar physical pixels.

            *** 15 minutes later ***

            I think you’re right. I was writing a whole paragraph about Windows 200% magnification for HiDPI displays, but if Windows is still displaying, say, a 4K desktop and just blowing up the interface, it would still be a 4K whatsit.

            So yeah, nvm 🙂

        • the
        • 4 years ago

        You could always upgrade the GPUs…. oh wait.

      • Concupiscence
      • 4 years ago

      They’ve been stuck at OpenGL 4.1 for at least the past two releases, and before that they were on GL 3 for years. I can only wonder how much they could have improved their implementation of it if they’d prioritized it over Metal, but it’s their wheelhouse. I’m considering selling my MacBook Air; their priorities on mobile x86 just aren’t lining up with mine.

      • tipoo
      • 4 years ago

      That’s a fair point. Their OpenGL 4.1 implementation is five years behind, modern OpenGL can get pretty close to DX11 performance.

      I just hope they eventually support Vulkan. Metal is cool, but Vulkan would allow easier cross porting.

        • Concupiscence
        • 4 years ago

        Vulkan will probably appear on OS X as a bulletpoint feature. It’s likely to become the non-Direct3D standard for game development outside of the Windows ecosystem, and there’s enough broad industry support for that to become likely. Metal will exist as a nice bridge between development on iOS and OS X, and Apple’s control over it will make it a nice option for their homegrown apps. The rise of Vulkan for gaming and realtime rendering means that OpenGL will likely become even more conservative, existing for backwards compatibility’s sake and principally facilitating the needs of professional and workstation developers going forward.

        edit: Did a little more thinking about this over my lunch break.

        OS X’s latest supported OpenGL revision is 4.1, unveiled in 2010. The latest stable version is OpenGL 4.5, from last year. I suspect featureset fragmentation between different vendors and models may be an issue:
        * Haswell IGPs are limited to OpenGL 4.2, Broadwell to 4.3, and Skylake to 4.4
        * AMD GPUs are compliant with OpenGL 4.4
        * Nvidia’s post-Tesla designs are all certified compatible with OpenGL 4.5

        OS X’s still on OpenCL 1.2 from 2011; v2.0’s been stable since 2013, with v2.1 being finalized later this year.

        My suspicions on Apple’s motivations:

        Hypothesis 1: They really don’t care, are pushing Metal as The Way Forward, and everything else can go hang (brutal and possible within a closed ecosystem, but bad for PR and would alienate a lot of developers). I suspect this isn’t it.

        Hypothesis 2: They’re waiting to make a big, convergent Vulkan 1.0/OpenCL 2.x announcement when their implementation’s closer to being ready. As they use the same fundamental backend that could be a sensible decision, and it gives time for those two specs to finalize while the implementation’s worked on. This also allows Metal to gain [i<]some[/i<] mindshare and broader use until Vulkan/OpenCL make it into the wild. Or, they're holding back on the update for 10.12 to encourage Metal penetration now. Whatever.

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